RESCUE UROLOGY HOSPITAL KENGERI

NEPHROLOGY

NEPHROLOGY

Acute Kidney Infection (AKI)

Acute Kidney Infection and Symptoms

Acute pyelonephritis is a sudden and severe kidney infection. It causes the kidneys to swell and may permanently damage them. Pyelonephritis can be sometimes life threatening. A kidney infection is caused by bacteria travelling from your bladder into one or both kidneys. Seek prompt medical treatment if you develop signs of one such infection.

SYMPOTOMS

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Back, side or groin pain
  • Abdominal pain
  • Frequent urination
  • Strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pus and blood in your urine
  • Urine that smells bad and is cloudy
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases
  • Fluid buildup in lungs causing shortness of breath.

Prevalence of Actute Kidney Infection

  • AKI can occur in pregnant women as well as in anyone who has a weakened immune system.
  • Having a urinary tract blockage for example having stones in the kidney or something abnormal in your urinary tract structure.
  • In men who have an enlarged prostate gland.
  • Having damage to nerves around the bladder while having a spinal injury.
  • Using a urinary catheter for a period of time.
  • Having a condition that causes the urine to flow the wrong direction in which case the risk could be found in childhood or adulthood.

Diagnosis of AKI

Learn about the investigations and the diagnosis

  • A urine sample to test bacteria, or blood or pus in your urine.
  • A blood sample to get culture done which is a lab test for bacteria or other organisms in your blood.
  • An ultrasound, CT scan or a type of X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram.Here a contrast dye is inserted to take X-ray of the bladder when full and while urinating.

Treatment of AKI

a) Antibiotics for kidney infection

Antibiotics are the first line of treatment for kidney infections. The drugs to be used and the duration will be decided by your doctor depending on your health and the results of urine and blood tests.
The entire course of antibiotics must be taken to get clear of the infection.
A repeat urine test and culture is recommended after the course is completed.
If infection is still present you may be advised to go through another course of antibiotics.

b) Hospitalization for severe kidney infections

If your kidney infections are severe , you may be advised to get admitted to the hospital.
Treatment might include antibiotics and intravenous fluids.
Your duration of stay at the hospital will be decided by the doctor in charge.

c) Treatment for recurrent kidney infections

A medical problem such as a misshapen urinary tract that can cause repeated infections in the kidney.
You would be referred to a kidney specialist (nephrologist ) or urinary surgeon(urologist).
A surgery might be needed to repair the structural abnormality.

d) Dialysis

Dialysis is considered when a person's kidney cannot filter around 120 to 150 quarts of blood each day.
Dialysis is an option in cases where there has been a chronic, or long term illness, or any injury or short term illness that affects the kidneys.
Dialysis may be considered until your kidneys recover.
Dialysis is an artificial process of removing waste products and excess fluids from the body. 

  • DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT AKI?
  • TELE CONSULT WITH YOUR UROLOGIST

Patient safety is our priority

Pre-surgery preparations, anaesthesia and surgery

- Your doctor should be informed of the other medications you are consuming.

- In case of surgery , do inform the anaesthetist if you are allergic to any drugs.

- Fasting will be instructed by your doctor according to the need of the surgery.

- Do bring all your medications along with their prescriptions.

- Make sure to carry all paperwork, x-rays, test reports regarding your case.

- Depending upon the results obtained, your doctor will decide whether you    should go through IV fluids along with antibiotics or surgery for correcting abnormalities or even dialysis as the case may be.



Risks and complications

- Watch out for repeated symptoms after the treatment is over.

- Serious complications of kidney infections could lead to kidney scarring which can lead to chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and kidney failure.

- Septicemia or blood poisoning wherein the bacteria that has affected your kidney can spread to your bloodstream.

- Pregnant women who develop kidney infections may deliver low birth weight babies. 

  • DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT AKI?
  • TELE CONSULT WITH YOUR UROLOGIST

What's important after discharge?

- Drink enough fluids especially water that can help you remove bacteria from your body when you urinate.

- Urinate as soon as you need to do so.

- Empty the bladder after intercourse.

- Avoid using products such as deodorant sprays in your genital area.

- Work with your doctor to manage kidney and other chronic conditions.

- Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control.

- A healthy lifestyle should be your priority.

- Be active, eat a balanced diet and drink alcohol only in moderation. 

  • DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT AKI?
  • TELE CONSULT WITH YOUR UROLOGIST

NEPHROLOGY

Chronic Kidney Disease

CKD and Symptoms

Having a severe kidney infection or repeated kidney infections can damage the kidneys. They can lead to chronic kidney diseases.

SYMPOTOMS

  • Anemia
  • Dark urine
  • Back, side or groin pain
  • Decreased mental alertness
  • Decreased urine output
  • Strong, persistent urge to urinate
  • Burning sensation or pain when urinating
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Pus and blood in your urine
  • Edema-swollen feet, hands and ankles
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Hypertension ( high blood pressure)
  • Insomnia
  • Itchy skin , can become persistent
  • Loss of appetite
  • Male inability to get an erection
  • Muscle cramps
  • More frequent urination at night
  • Muscle twitches
  • Protein in urine
  • Sudden change in body weight
  • Unexplained headaches

Prevalence of CKD

  • Babies(0-2) very rare
  • Children (2-18) rare.
  • Young adults (19-40)very common
  • Adults (41-60) very common
  • Seniors (60+) very common

Diagnosis of CKD

Learn about the investigations and the diagnosis

  • A urine sample to test bacteria, or blood or pus in your urine.
  • A blood sample to get culture done which is a lab test for bacteria or other organisms in your blood.
  • A kidney ultrasound or IVP (intravenous pyelogram -a special x-ray ) showing scarring.
  • Nuclear medicine scan.
  • Computed tomography ( CT )
  • Micturating cystourethrogram ( MCU ) in rare cases.

Treatment of CKD

Anemia treatment: Some kidney diseases patients with anemia will require blood transfusions. The patient may have to take iron supplements, either in the form of daily ferrous sulphate tablets, or occasionally in the form of injections.

Phosphate balance: Patients with kidney diseases may not be able to eliminate phosphate from the body properly. In such cases they will be advised to reduce their nutritional phosphate intake. Reduce dairy products, meat, eggs and fish.

High blood pressure: High blood pressure is a common feature in chronic kidney disease patients. It is important to bring down the blood pressure in order to protect the kidneys, consequently slowing down the progression of the diseases.

Skin itching: Antihistamines , such as chlorpheniramine may help in giving relief to such problems.

Anti-sickness medicines:  When toxins build up in the body because the kidneys are not functioning well, the patient may feel nausea. Medications to relieve this condition would be prescribed to help them feel better. 

End-stage treatment: Dialysis

Dialysis is considered when a person's kidney cannot filter around 120 to 150 quarts of blood each day.

Dialysis is an option in cases where there has been a chronic, or long term illness, or any injury or short term illness that affects the kidneys.

Dialysis may be considered until your kidneys recover.

Dialysis is an artificial process of removing waste products and excess fluids from the body. 

  • DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT CKD?
  • TELE CONSULT WITH YOUR UROLOGIST

Patient safety is our priority

Risks and complications

• Watch out for repeated symptoms after the treatment is over.
• Serious complications of kidney infections could lead to kidney scarring which can lead to chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and kidney failure.
• Septicemia or blood poisoning wherein the bacteria that has affected your kidney can spread to your bloodstream.

  • DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT CKD?
  • TELE CONSULT WITH YOUR UROLOGIST

What's important after discharge?

• Drink enough fluids especially water that can help you remove bacteria from your body when you urinate.
• Urinate as soon as you need to do so.
• Empty the bladder after intercourse.
• Avoid using products such as deodorant sprays in your genital area.
• Work with your doctor to manage kidney and other chronic conditions.
• Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control.
• A healthy lifestyle should be your priority.
• Be active, eat a balanced diet and drink alcohol only in moderation. 

  • DO YOU HAVE QUESTIONS ABOUT AKI?
  • TELE CONSULT WITH YOUR UROLOGIST

NEPHROLOGY

DIALYSIS

About


● Dialysis is considered when a person's kidney cannot filter around 120 to 150 quarts of blood each day.

● Dialysis is an option in cases where there has been a chronic, or long term illness, or any injury or short term illness that affects the kidneys.

● Dialysis may be considered until your kidneys recover.

● Dialysis is an artificial process of removing waste products and excess fluids from the body. 

  • Do you have questions about Dialysis?
  • Talk to our expert Nephrologist today.

Preparations for Dialysis

Pre-surgery preparations, anaesthesia and surgery

  • Your doctor should be informed of the other medications you are consuming.
  • In case of surgery, do inform the anaesthetist if you are allergic to any drugs.
  • Fasting will be instructed by your doctor according to the need of the surgery.
  • Do bring all your medications along with their prescriptions.
  • Make sure to carry all paperwork, x-rays, test reports regarding your case.
  • Depending upon the results obtained, your doctor will decide whether you should go through IV fluids along with antibiotics or surgery for correcting abnormalities or even dialysis as the case may be.

Risks and Complications

Watch out for repeated symptoms after the treatment is over. 

● Serious complications of kidney infections could lead to kidney scarring which can lead to chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure and kidney failure.
● Septicemia or blood poisoning wherein the bacteria that has affected your kidney can spread to your bloodstream.
● Pregnant women who develop kidney infections may deliver low birth weight babies.

  • Do you have questions about Dialysis?
  • Talk to our expert Nephrologist today.

What do you need to do?

● Drink enough fluids especially water that can help you remove bacteria from your body when you urinate.
● Urinate as soon as you need to do so.
● Empty the bladder after intercourse.
● Avoid using products such as deodorant sprays in your genital area.
● Work with your doctor to manage kidney and other chronic conditions.
● Keep your diabetes and blood pressure under control.
● A healthy lifestyle should be your priority.
● Be active, eat a balanced diet and drink alcohol only in moderation. 

  • Do you have questions about Dialysis?
  • Talk to our expert Nephrologist today.