Testicular Cancer is a condition when the cells of the testis grow to form a tumor, although the risk of getting one is unavoidable, it can be treated well if detected early. The cancer of the testis can affect a boy or man of any age(newborn to old age ), though it is more common between the ages of 15 to 44 years old. The treatment includes surgery, followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy. It is best to know how it can be found by self-examination.
The male reproductive organs include the penis, scrotum with testicles and prostate. These organs help make and release male sex hormones for growth muscle, bone, and body hair, make and move sperm for reproduction and protect the semen, and carry sperm into the female reproductive tract. The testicles are two small egg-shaped glands that are held below the penis, they also make male hormones like testosterone that controls the sex drive in men and starts the growth of muscle; bone, and body hair. Testicles need to be firm, slightly spongy feel all through it.
The symptoms of testicular cancer include a painless lump in the testicle, sometimes swelling with or without pain, feeling of the weight of the testicles, a dull ache or pain in the testicle, scrotum or groin, tenderness or changes in the male breast tissue If you have any of the above symptoms or a lump meet your doctor to have yourself checked for cancer.
This includes Health Record and Physical Exam, wherein your urologist will talk about your health, find out on what medication you are following, then he will examine your scrotum, belly, lymph nodes, and other parts and look for lumps, firmness or signs of swelling which are actually signs of cancer.
The next stage is a testicular ultrasound performed to check for lumps. Some other tests and x-rays would be advised by the doctor to check your chest and abdomen to find out whether or not the cancer has spread elsewhere.
Then comes the blood test to check for tumor markers, and they are protein and hormones made by some testicular cancers. Make sure to get an opinion of your doctor about your blood test results.
It is the method of finding out whether or not cancer has spread and learn the exact cancer cell-type, hence helping the doctor in choosing the right treatment. The different stages of Testicular Cancer are as follows –
Stage 0 – This stage is commonly known as Germ Cell Neoplasia In Situ (GCNIS), this is not yet cancer but it is a warning that cancer can grow.
Stage 1 (1A, 1B, IS) – Cancer is found only in the testicle, and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 11 ( 11A, 11B, 11C) – Cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the belly.
Stage 111 ( 111A, 111B, 111C) – Cancer has spread beyond lymph nodes in the belly. Cancer could be found far away from testicles, maybe at distant lymph nodes or the lungs.
Text credit: https://urologyhealth.org/