Types of Kidney Stones

Calcium Oxalate Stones — are the most common type of kidney stone and are a result of low levels of citrate and high levels of calcium or oxalate or uric acid. The calcium oxalate stones are linked with foods high in oxalate, which occurs naturally in plants and animals. This list includes beets, black tea, chocolate, nuts, potatoes and spinach. If the oxalate stones are formed again and again, then a detailed evaluation of the kidney function and metabolism would be found necessary. The evaluation may need blood tests and collection of urine at home for 24 hours. You would be advised dietary modifications to reduce this risk of reoccurrence of kidney stones.

Calcium Phosphate Stones —

In case of any abnormalities in urinary system functions, then there might be an occurrence of calcium phosphate stones in the kidney. In such a case, a series of blood tests and urine tests will be advised to determine whether any urinary or kidney problems could be causing the type of stones or sometimes together with calcium oxalate stones.

Struvite Stones —

Most common in women, struvite stones form as a result of certain urinary tract infections(UTI). These tend to grow fast; hence the large size occupies the entire kidney. If these are left untreated, they can be the cause of frequent and sometimes severe urinary tract infections and finally kidney function loss.

Uric Acid Stones —

Uric acid stones are very common in men; they occur in people who do not drink enough water or have a diet of animal protein. They occur in people who have gout, a family history of this type of kidney stone or in people who have undergone chemotherapy.

Cystine Stones —

Cystine stones are caused by a hereditary genetic disorder called cystinuria. This is a condition of excessive amounts of amino acid cystine collecting in the urine. Thus the formation of stones in the kidney, bladder and ureters is seen.