Urological Surgery involves a set of surgical activities to set right some abnormal conditions for the pelvis, colon, urogenital and gynecological organs. Here the treatments are given for obstructions, dysfunctions, malignancies and inflammatory diseases.
The urinary tract for men and women, and the reproductive system of males are the main features involving urologic surgery. The numerous types of treatments are:
a). Renal (kidney) Surgery – The surgeon removes diseased tissue from a kidney and leaves the healthy kidney in place.
b). Kidney Removal (nephrectomy) – Surgical procedure to remove all or part of the kidney, sometimes other adjacent structures such as a part of the ureter, adrenal gland or lymph nodes are also removed.
c). Surgery of the ureters (including ureterolithotomy or removal of stones in the ureter) – Sometimes there could be a condition of ureteral obstruction that could cause severe pain that might require an immediate procedure to remove urine from the body to relieve pain, wherein a ureteral stent is inserted inside the ureter to keep it open.
d). Bladder surgery – The surgery involves the removal of the entire urinary bladder in men, often known as Cystectomy. In women it is radical cystectomy where the uterus, ovaries and part of the vagina is removed.
e). Pelvic lymph node dissection – this surgery plays an important role in the treatment of several genitourinary cancers, most often used in bladder cancer, prostate cancer, urethral cancer and penile cancer.
f). Prostatic surgery (removal of prostate) – A procedure used to treat urinary problems caused by an enlarged prostate. This procedure goes by the name Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
g). Testicular surgery (Scrotal) – the surgery is known as Orchiectomy, and it involves the removal of one or both the testicles. This is a surgery performed to prevent prostate cancer from spreading.
h). Urethra surgery – Sometimes after a trauma to the urethra, a surgery is suggested for the reconstruction of the posterior urethra in males.
i). Surgery to the penis – This surgery helps men with erectile dysfunction, often known as penile implant surgery, when a prosthetic device is inserted in the penis and scrotum.
j). Robotic prostatectomies – This is a minimally invasive prostate removal and cancer treatment surgery. This surgery uses smaller instruments that facilitate exact movements during the procedure.
k). Robotic nephrectomy – This is a delicate procedure used to treat kidney cancer. The robot facilitates a three-dimensional view for accurate results. This surgery is performed on general anaesthesia and the operating time is about 3-4 hours.
Some chronic and malignant diseases after treatment could disrupt the digestive, renal or reproductive systems. Urologic surgery has now gone global with some really advanced techniques using urodynamic diagnostic systems. The frequently used techniques are laparoscopy, endoscopic examination for colon cancer, implantations and imaging techniques.
Radical and partial resections for malignant and benign conditions, implantations and diversion surgeries form a major part of urologic surgery.
Text Credits: https://www.urologyhealth.org/
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